USS Worden (DD-352) Wrecked off Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, 12 January 1943. The sinking of the ocean tug USS Sonoma on 24 October is listed in some sources as the first ship lost to a kamikaze strike, but the attack occurred before 25 October, and the aircraft used, a Mitsubishi G4M, was not flown by the original four Special Attack Squadrons. PT-73 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Baliquias Bay, Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 January 1945. Some were unable to stand up and were carried and pushed into the plane by maintenance soldiers. YP-88 destroyed by grounding at Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, 28 October 1943. [citation needed], On 17 October 1944, Allied forces assaulted Suluan Island, beginning the Battle of Leyte Gulf. USS LST-499 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 8 June 1944. LCT(5)-362 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. The last two ran at USS White Plains. Like all Army and Navy servicemen, the kamikaze would wear their senninbari, a "belt of a thousand stitches" given to them by their mothers. [38][39], The resilience of well-armoured vessels was shown on 4 May, just after 11:30, when there was a wave of suicide attacks against the British Pacific Fleet. LCT(5)-319 sunk at Kiska, Aleutian Islands, 27 August 1943. USS Fiske (DE-143) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-804 north of Azores, 2 August 1944. [9][10], A Japanese monoplane that made a record-breaking flight from Tokyo to London in 1937 for the Asahi newspaper group was named Kamikaze. LCT(5)-215 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 1943. USS Grayback (SS-208) sunk by Japanese aircraft in the East China Sea, 26 February 1944. Landing Ship, Tank (LST) 14 November 1942. The invasion never happened, and few were ever used. USS Long (DMS-12) sunk by Kamikaze attack in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 January 1945. The ultimate offering was to give up one's life. Only one “fleet” carrier, the Essex-clas LCT(6)-963 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944. USS S-27 (SS-132) lost by grounding on a reef off St. Makarius Point, Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, 19 June 1942. USS S-26 (SS-131) sunk after collision with submarine chaser PC-460 in the Gulf of Panama, 24 January 1942. Lo (CVE-63) sunk by Japanese aircraft during the Battle of Leyte Gulf off Samar, Philippine Islands, 25 October 1944. USS Perch (SS-176) scuttled after being damaged by Japanese destroyers Sazanami and Ushio north of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 3 March 1942. The British were able to clear the flight deck and resume flight operations in just hours, while their American counterparts took a few days or even months, as observed by a U.S. Navy liaison officer on HMS Indefatigable who commented: "When a kamikaze hits a U.S. carrier it means six months of repair at Pearl Harbor. Light Cruiser (CL) Numbers quoted vary, but at least 47 Allied vessels, from PT boats to escort carriers, were … USS PGM-7 sunk in collision in the Bismarck Sea, 18 July 1944. USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) sunk by gunfire of Japanese warships during the Battle of Leyte Gulf off Samar, Philippine Islands, 25 October 1944. Late in 1944, the British Pacific Fleet (BPF) used the good high-altitude performance of its Supermarine Seafires (the naval version of the Spitfire) on combat air patrol duties. The total number of active combatant ships engaged in combat at Okinawa was MUCH larger than Normandy. USS Quail (AM-15) scuttled off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 May 1942. USS Maddox (DD-622) sunk after being bombed by German aircraft off Gela, Sicily,  USS LCS(L)(3)-33 sunk by shore batteries off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945. USS YMS-19 sunk by a mine off Palau, Caroline Islands, 24 September 1944. Light rapid fire anti-aircraft weapons such as the 40 mm Bofors and 20 mm Oerlikon autocannons were highly effective,[32] but heavy anti-aircraft guns such as the 5"/38 caliber gun (127 mm) had the punch to blow kamikazes out of the air, which was preferable since even a heavily damaged kamikaze could complete its mission. LCT(5)-66 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12 April 1945. Shinpū is the on-reading (on'yomi or Chinese-derived pronunciation) of the same characters as the kun-reading (kun'yomi or Japanese pronunciation) kamikaze in Japanese. USS Laffey (DD-459) sunk by the Japanese battleship Hiei off Savo, Solomon Islands,  USS SC-1019 lost by grounding, 22 April 1945. Details of Oite wreck The Oite wreck was a Kamikaze Class Destroyer and was sunk on 18th February 1944, haivng survived the first day of Operation Hailstone. USS Bittern (AM-36) Sunk by aircraft bombs at Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands,  USS PC-814 destroyed by typhoon at Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 12 December 1945. USS Bonefish (SS-223) sunk by Japanese warships in Toyama Wan, Honshu, Japan,  USS Hutchins (DD-476) seriously damaged by a Japanese suicide boat, 27 April 1945, in Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, and not repaired after the end of the war. USS YMS-24 sunk by a mine off St. Tropez, France, 15 August 1944. PT-147 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Teliata Point, New Guinea, 20 November 1943. In 1945 a sixth ship was sunk by submarine action. USS SC-744 sunk by Kamikaze attack in Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, 27 November 1944. USS LCI(L)-91 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. YP-284 sunk by surface ships off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 25 October 1942. According to a U.S. Navy report, a kamikaze had been shot down within 75 yards of the bow of the ship on April 6 and three bombs were dropped near the ship on … LCT(5)-182 sunk off the Solomon Islands, 7 August 1944. Yacht (PY) [33] The speedy Ohkas presented a very difficult problem for anti-aircraft fire, since their velocity made fire control extremely difficult. USS Tang (SS-306) sunk by own torpedo off Formosa, 24 October 1944. The peak period of kamikaze attack frequency came during April–June 1945 at the Battle of Okinawa. One Corsair and 10 Grumman Avengers were destroyed. USS LCI(L)-497 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. YP-438 destroyed by grounding at Port Everglades, Florida, 20 March 1943. USS LSMR-190 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945. USS LST-480 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944. [59][60] Some persons who obeyed the policy, such as Kiyokuma Okajima, Saburo Shindo and Iyozo Fujita, were also critical of the policy. Bibliography. USS Scorpion (SS-278) missing in the western Pacific, 6 March 1944. [2] Kamikaze attacks were more accurate than conventional attacks, and often caused more damage. USS Helena (CL-50) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese warships during the Battle of Kula Gulf, Solomon Islands, 6 July 1943. USS LST-749 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 21 December 1944. [20] First Lieutenant Takeshi Kosai and a sergeant were selected. LCT(5)-413 sunk off northern France, June 1944. This stigma began to diminish some 50 years after the war as scholars and publishers began to distribute the survivors' stories. Terrible Naval Losses Nine more waves of kamikaze attacks hit the fleet off of Okinawa before the battle came to an end. The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sinking after being torpedoed by a German submarine in November 1941, the assisting destroyer HMS Legion was sunk in 1942. A pilot would dive towards his target and "aim for a point between the bridge tower and the smoke stacks". YP-94 destroyed by grounding, 18 February 1945. USS Edsall (DD-219) sunk by Japanese warships south of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 1 March 1942. PT-35 destroyed to prevent capture, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippine Islands, 12 April 1942. USS PC-815 sunk by collision with USS Laffey (DD-724) off San Diego, California,  LCT(6)-1075 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1944. YP-422 destroyed by grounding off New Caledonia. Seki is said to have closed his eyes, lowered his head and thought for ten seconds before saying: "Please do appoint me to the post." Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka rocket planes, launched from bombers, were first deployed in kamikaze attacks from March 1945. On 19 June 1944, planes from the carrier Chiyoda approached a US task group. USS Monssen (DD-436) sunk by gunfire from Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 13 November 1942. USS Fechteler (DE-157) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-967 northeast of Oran, Algeria, 5 May 1944. USS YMS-98 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945. Captain Motoharu Okamura, in charge of the Tateyama Base in Tokyo, as well as the 341st Air Group Home, was, according to some sources, the first officer to officially propose kamikaze attack tactics. "[44] Okamura is credited with being the first to propose the kamikaze attacks. Mine sweeper, Coastal (AMc) USS Astoria (CA-34) sunk by gunfire of Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 9 August 1942. USS Sturtevant (DD-240) sunk by a mine off Marquesas Key, Florida, 26 April 1942. It is not clear that this was a planned suicide attack, and official Japanese accounts of Arima's attack bore little resemblance to the actual events. The Kamikaze strike resulted in massive fires that led to an explosion in the ship’s bomb magazine. Entering a smoke stack was also said to be "effective". 18 February 1945, and scuttled off Saipan, Mariana Islands, 16 July 1945. [52][50], The manual was very detailed in how a pilot should attack. In 1890, the Imperial Rescript on Education was passed, under which students were required to ritually recite its oath to offer themselves "courageously to the state" as well as protect the Imperial family. PT-34 sunk by Japanese aircraft strafing attack off Cauit Island, Cebu, Philippine Islands, 9 April 1942. PT-136 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Malai Island, Vitiaz Strait, New Guinea, 17 September 1943. This is usually abbreviated to tokkōtai (特攻隊). USS Corvina (SS-226) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-176 southwest of Truk, Caroline Islands, 16 November 1943. USS Bristol (DD-453) sunk after being torpedoed by the German submarine U-371 off Cape Bougaroun, Algeria, 12 October 1943. USS Shark (SS-314) sunk by Japanese destroyer Harukaze in Luzon Strait, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944. LCT(5)-35 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 15 February 1944. Also Read: This is actual footage of the Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri Sailors and Marines work together putting out the fires caused by the Kamikaze pilots. USS Henley (DD-391) sunk after being torpedoed by the Japanese submarine RO-108 off Cape Cretin, New Guinea, 3 October 1943. Fisheries II (converted yacht) destroyed to prevent capture at Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 May 1942. USS LCS(L)(3)-37 engines damaged beyond repair by a depth charge dropped under the fantail by a suicide boat off Nakagusuki Wan, Okinawa, 28 April 1945. 28 December 1944. USS LST-318 sunk by aircraft off Caronia, Sicily, 10 August 1943. USS LCS(L)(3)-49 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon,  USS Bismarck Sea (CVE-95) sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 21 February 1945. USS Robalo (SS-273) sunk by a internal explosion or a mine off Palawan, Philippine Islands, 26 July 1944. Officers such as Minoru Genda, Tadashi Minobe and Yoshio Shiga, refused to obey the policy. USS Shelton (DE-407) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese submarine RO-41 off Morotai Island, 3 October 1944. USS LST-808 grounded after being damaged by Japanese aircraft off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 18 May 1945, and destroyed, 11 November 1945. 10 December 1941. PT-117 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, Rendova Harbor, Solomon Islands,  During the northern hemisphere winter of 1944–45, the IJAAF formed the 47th Air Regiment, also known as the Shinten Special Unit (Shinten Seiku Tai) at Narimasu Airfield, Nerima, Tokyo, to defend the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. In World War II Japanese pilots who were willing to give up their lives to help save their country by destroying … USS LST-342 sunk by Japanese submarine RO-106 west of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 18 July 1943. USS SC-1067 foundered off Attu, Aleutian Islands, 19 November 1943. 2. This recommended combat air patrols (CAP) that were larger and operated further from the carriers than before, a line of picket destroyers and destroyer escorts at least 80 km (50 mi) from the main body of the fleet to provide earlier radar interception and improved coordination between fighter direction officers on carriers. Many Japanese felt that to be enshrined at Yasukuni was a special honour because the Emperor visited the shrine to pay homage twice a year. The Seafires' best day was 15 August 1945, shooting down eight attacking aircraft with a single loss. USS Oberrender (DE-344) damaged beyond repair by a Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 May 1945. A long steel splinter speared down through the hangar deck and the main boiler room (where it ruptured a steam line) before coming to rest in a fuel tank near the aircraft park, where it started a major fire. Ōnishi, addressing this unit, told them that their nobility of spirit would keep the homeland from ruin even in defeat. USS Quincy (CA-39) sunk by gunfire and torpedoes of Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 9 August 1942. Arima was killed and part of a plane hit Franklin. USS PC-590 destroyed by grounding during typhoon at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945. [19], One source claims that the first kamikaze mission occurred on 13 September 1944. PT-173 lost in transit, tanker torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-17, 100 miles south of Noumea, New Caledonia, 24 May 1943.